Supercoca Boliviana Negra cocaine win: Glyphosate/Roundup resistant vs Monsanto; Economic Hitmen/Jackals still gettin paid

Boliviana negra - Wikipedia,

Also known as supercoca or la millionaria, Boliviana Negra is a relatively new form of coca that is resistant to herbicide Roundup, or the isopropylamine salt ofglyphosate. The coca plant is the precursor to the addictive stimulant cocaine, one of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in the world and the source of large amounts of money to various criminal organizations. Since Roundup is a key ingredient in the multibillion-dollar aerial coca eradication campaign undertaken by the government of Colombia with US financial and military backing known as Plan Colombia, increasing popularity of Boliviana negra amongst growers could have serious repurcussions for the War on Drugs.

The herbicide resistance of this strain has at least two possible explanations: that a “peer-to-peer” network of coca farmers used selective breeding to enhance this trait through tireless effort, or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented Roundup Ready or glyphosate-resistant soybean was marketed by Monsanto Company, suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana negra with glyphosate would serve to strengthen its growth by eliminating the non-resistant weeds surrounding it. Joshua Davis, in the Wired article cited below, found no evidence of CP4, a protein produced by the Roundup Ready soybean, suggesting Bolivana negra was not created in a laboratory but by selective breeding in the fields.

A fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, has been suggested as a possible successor to glyphosate, although this itself poses hazards to humans and other plant species.

DynCorp and Monsanto have long been the beneficiaries of dumping Roundup (aka glyphosate) all over Columbia, profiting from your US taxpayer dollars - or debt, rather.

We catch word that now the coca is becoming more resistant and minions beat up people who expose how constant Monsanto/Dyncorp glyphosate dousing of the peasants could be toxic!!

When Cocaine and Monsanto's Pesticide Collide, the War on Drugs Becomes a Genetically-Modified War on Science | | AlterNet

At the intersection of cocaine and Roundup in rural South America, Monsanto and the U.S. government are struggling to keep up appearances. That's becoming more and more difficult as the unanticipated hazards of genetic modification become clearer.

Back in April, Argentinean embryologist Andrés Carrasco gave an interview with a Buenos Aires newspaper describing his recent findings suggesting the chemical glyphosate, a chemical herbicide widely used in agriculture as well as in U.S. anti-narcotic efforts, could cause defects in fetuses in much smaller doses than those to which peasants and farmers in his country were already being exposed. Loud calls for a ban on the substance were issued by Argentinean environmental lawyers, and the country's Ministry of Defense banned the planting of glyphosate-resistant soya crops in its fields.


The dangers of glyphosate are hotly debated. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency does regulate the allowable amount in drinking water, but the data it has on the dangers of the chemical are all nearly two decades old, and many studies were sponsored by Monsanto. But rural agricultural workers across South America have been protesting the spraying for well over a decade, pointing to increases in local cancer rates and birth defects as proof.


One TNI study looked at the political and commercial motives for continuing to spray the chemical on drug crops in South America regardless of findings that the effort is counterproductive at best:

It is true that the United States is behind fumigation, backed by the economic interests of companies such as Monsanto and DynCorp, who share in this lucrative business -– which is one of the reasons it meets with opposition. But it is also true that the disastrous consequences of the current anti-drug policy, of which fumigation is but one component, are a reality that surpasses ideologies, and the nations that suffer its consequences firsthand must find a solution instead of becoming polarised...

Colombia would not fumigate if it weren’t for pressure from the US. It would be implementing other forms of eradication or offering alternative development programmes that provide income to the population.

The group suggested that South American countries band together to refuse U.S. anti-narcotic spraying on environmental and human safety grounds, as has been done in Afghanistan.

In 2004, Joshua Davis had the Boliviana negra plant tested to determine its provenance for Wired Magazine. He concludes that the glyphosate-resistant coca plant he found in Colombia was most likely developed in the fields by farmers grafting on chance genetic mutations.

But the resulting article is perhaps most interesting for the taciturn response on all sides of the issue. Davis suggests that South American authorities don't want to talk about the situation because the revelation might cost countries that receive a large amount of U.S. aid to combat drug traffickers. The U.S. government doesn't want coca farmers who don't already know to find out about the new strain, because it can still eradicate old strains with glyphosate. And drug growers who do have the new strain certainly don't want the status quo to end, because currently the U.S. government is doing their weeding for free.

But on the larger cost-benefit analysis, the biggest winner is Monsanto. The more Roundup Ready crops there are out there, the more Roundup farmers need to get rid of the weeds, as is evidenced by the GRAIN research in Argentina. The real foe of Monsanto is not drug cartels or government entities. It's scientists.

Lets turn from poison and economic-biosphere-biopolitics-nexus of doom to the debt bomb and covert operations. A really nice excerpt from a video ought to be checked out... from the ppl that brought you Confessions of an Economic Hit Man: How the U.S. Uses Globalization to Cheat Poor Countries Out of Trillions.


Another reflection on the status of affairs in South & Central America is from John Perkins, the author of Confessions of an Economic Hit-Man, who explains in a chunk of the video "Zeitgeist Addendum" [full version] about the basic operations pattern of covert international control perpetrated by the CIA et al over the 20th century, citing his experience dealing with the uncorruptable and decent president of Panama (who won back his canal and then promptly got blown up) and elsewhere.

He explains that his role, as an economic hit-man, was to go in and demand that the leaders of Central and South American countries had better play ball. That's step 1. Step 2 is to send in jackals to take them out -- jackals being private operatives paid generally by the CIA (or today one could say the usual suspects).
Step 3 is the US military - he points out that steps 1 and 2 never worked on Saddam Hussein, even after the war, and so they had to come in and go all the way twice.
Perkins added on Democracy Now...

"I was initially recruited while I was in business school back in the late sixties by the National Security Agency, the nation’s largest and least understood spy organization; but ultimately I worked for private corporations. The first real economic hit man was back in the early 1950’s, Kermit Roosevelt, the grandson of Teddy, who overthrew the government of Iran, a democratically elected government, Mossadegh’s government who was Time‘s magazine person of the year; and he was so successful at doing this without any bloodshed—well, there was a little bloodshed, but no military intervention, just spending millions of dollars and replaced Mossadegh with the Shah of Iran. At that point, we understood that this idea of economic hit man was an extremely good one. We didn’t have to worry about the threat of war with Russia when we did it this way. The problem with that was that Roosevelt was a C.I.A. agent. He was a government employee. Had he been caught, we would have been in a lot of trouble. It would have been very embarrassing. So, at that point, the decision was made to use organizations like the C.I.A. and the N.S.A. to recruit potential economic hit men like me and then send us to work for private consulting companies, engineering firms, construction companies, so that if we were caught, there would be no connection with the government.[2] Democracy Now - Nov 4 '04 interview

Another good point -- Kermit Roosevelt was getting his paychecks from the CIA directly when he was doing that whole Iran thang. Obviously, a foolish maneuver when you can just set up fronts and proprietary companies!
As seen previously on in a long and convoluted post years ago... Negative Return on Investment Economy: Katherine Austin Fitts and the fake war on drugs...

Around and around it goes -- where the money stops, who knows?? :-P

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