Found older manual on Civil Disturbance Operations - TRAMAN (Navy training manual)
Fortunately the MP manual which I wrote a post on last Thursday night has been circulating & spurred a lot of discussion on domestic military operations. I will be going on the Alex Jones Show at 1PM tomorrow (Central) to discuss this and other trends in domestic militarization. Please tune in!
Here's the interview from Sunday if you haven't seen it:
Here's the Friday evening interview with Darren McBreen:
Possibly worth noting is another training manual I found when poking around with search terms. I think it's fairly old & comes from the US Navy's Master at Arms training. It doesn't have interesting references to domestic operations but may be useful to have available nonetheless. Here is the full text of Chapter 9, Civil Disturbances.
Other pages on that set of sites with the phrase 'civil disturbance' Defense Switched Network // Defense Switched Network // Assignment 1, Continued // Precautionary Actions. Nothing too exciting though...
- Civil Disturbances
- Release from Depressed Emotions
- Courses of Mob Action
- Principles of Civil Disturbance Control
- Operational Tasks and Techniques
- Crowd Control Techniques
- Military Working Dogs
- Formation Interval
- Mental Preparation for Civil Disturbance Operations
[Full text below the fold]
In a civil disturbance environment, any crowd represents a threat to law and order because a crowd can be easily manipulated by skillful agitators and create a capacity for violence.
Collective behavior as it relates to civil disturbances is characterized by the following situations:
l Curious bystanders and sympathetic onlookers join forces with activist groups and individuals.
l Crowds that are normally peaceful become irrational mobs as behavior factors take hold.
l Skillful leaders, through various techniques, agitate and incite crowds into irrational action.
l Crowds demonstrate grievances by transferring aggression from social or economic problems to some group or individual, who becomes an object of hostility.
Remember, in order to successfully accomplish civil disturbance control, you must have an understanding of collective behavior and the patterns of disorder involved. The psychological influences on collective behavior are also a factor.
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify and explain five psychological influences on collective behavior. Describe how these influences affect both group and control force behavior.
Psychological influences contribute to the irrational extremes of behavior in groups, and control force members are also affected by these same factors. These influences must be considered in planning and training for a disturbance, and in control and supervision after arriving at the disturbance site. Anonymity, impersonality, suggestion and imitation, emotional contagion, and release from repressed emotions are the psychological influences to be considered.
Crowds are anonymous because they are large and most often temporary. A crowd member acts with a sense of safety, feeling a part of a faceless mass. The
individual acts without conscience, thinking that moral responsibility has been shifted to the crowd.
The size of the control force and the nature of interaction with the dissidents may remove the sense of individual responsibility from control force personnel as well. This feeling of anonymity may also cause a control force member to commit acts normally suppressed. The commander must assure that supervisors instruct the control force so that these anonymous feelings are prevented. Every leader should know each member of the control force by name, and address each by name at every opportunity.
Collective behavior is impersonal. In a race riot, for example, individual distinctions are not made. Each member of a certain race or ethnic group is considered to be as good or bad as other members of the same race or ethnic group.
Impersonality affects members of the control force in the same manner it affects the crowd. It could cause the control force to respond to a situation inappropriately because the response would be based on who was involved rather than on what took place. Racial and ethnic balance within the control force itself can help stem impersonality, as can an understanding of the people involved in the disturbance.
SUGGESTION AND IMITATION
A large number of people in a disturbance discourages individual behavior and makes individuals act readily to suggestion. The urge to do what others do is a strong instinct; they look to others for cues and disregard personal background and training. Only individuals with strong convictions can resist the compulsion to conform to the group.
In the confrontation environment, control force personnel also are susceptible to suggestion, and may imitate the actions of others. In such a situation, one improper action may be imitated by others in the control force and cause a broad reaction that may be inappropriate to the situation.
The most dramatic psychological factor in crowd behavior is emotional contagion. Excitement is transmitted from one person to another and a high state of collective emotion builds up. Ideas conceived by the leaders and dominant members of the crowd are rapidly passed from person to person. These ideas and general mood of the crowd sweep to bystanders and curiosity
seekers who are caught in the wave of excitement and crowd action. Emotional contagion is especially significant in a civil disturbance environment for the following reasons:
Emotional contagion provides the crowd with
psychological unity. This unity is based on common emotional responses and is usually temporary, but it may be the only momentum a crowd needs to turn to mob action.
When emotional contagion prevails, self-discipline is usually low. Individuals disregard normal controls and give way to raw emotions.
Emotional contagion exceeds the bounds of personal contact. Crowds can also be stimulated by television, radio, and the print media.
Emotional contagion narrows the field of consciousness and diminishes the critical thinking ability of the control force, as well as that of the crowd. Control force personnel are apt to be emotionally stimulated and be affected by rumor and fear because of the tension in the confrontation environment. When the control force is affected by this tension factor, self-discipline tends to be low and the individual may feel free of normal restraints. Supervisors must be cognizant of this factor and be prepared to take appropriate action to counteract its effects.
RELEASE FROM REPRESSED EMOTIONS
The prejudices and unsatisfied desires of the individual, which are normally held in restraint, are readily released in a mob. This temporary release is a powerful incentive for a person to join in a mob action because it affords an opportunity to do things he or she would normally never do.
Control force members who foster contempt for certain people or segments of society may take advantage of their position to express their contempt. All control force members should be thoroughly briefed about performing duties fairly and impartially, and they must be made aware that they can be held individually accountable for their actions.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT CROWD BEHAVIOR
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: List and explain five factors that affect crowd behavior.
In addition to the psychological influences on behavior, additional factors have been identified that affect group behavior. These factors include emotional needs, moral attitudes, crowd leadership, the use of physical stimuli, and external controls. However irrational and unrestrained crowd behavior may appear, it is ruled by these factors.
Crowd behavior expresses the emotional needs, resentments, and prejudices of the members. The emotional stimulus and protection of the crowd encourages its members to express the impulses, hostilities, aggressions, and rages that they restrain in calmer moments. When members of a mob are blocked from expressing emotion toward one another, the mob's attention generally shifts in another direction.
Crowd behavior is limited by the conviction of the members as to what is right. The concept of what is right is based on the customs or folkways, the conventional behaviors, and the moral attitudes of the times and places in which people live. A crowd rarely does anything without some moral approval. A lynching will occur only where a large proportion of the people feel that it is morally justified. The members of a lynching party consider themselves public benefactors, not guilty lawbreakers.
Leadership profoundly affects the intensity and direction of crowd behavior. A skillful agitator can convert a group of frustrated, resentful people into a vengeful mob and direct their aggression at any target included in their resentment. Likewise, an individual can sometimes calm or divert a crowd by a strategic suggestion or command. In many crowd situations, the members, frustrated by confusion and uncertainty, want to be directed. The first person who starts giving clear orders in an authoritative manner is likely to be followed. At this stage of crowd development, radicals can take charge and exploit the crowd's mood and turn it toward a target of convenience. On the other hand, a leader may calm the crowd, appeal to the reasoning powers of the individuals present, and avoid a potentially dangerous situation.
THE USE OF PHYSICAL STIMULI
professional agitators may resort to the use of physical stimuli in the form of drugs and liquor to create a false sense of bravado, recklessness, and desperation among selected neighborhood residents. These individuals are encouraged to set up and perpetrate violent acts in their own neighborhood while the professional joins the crowd and cheers them on from the outskirts. This technique is difficult to cope with, because the crowd will be in sympathy with a neighbor. A show of force by authorities often will compound the violence.
Weather is an important external control. Crowds usually form in the summertime when people are able to gather in large outdoor assemblies. Cold weather and rain discourage group actions.
Local government is also an external control that affects crowd behavior. Crowd behavior seldom becomes violent when the local government is prepared to cope with the situation before it gets out of hand. Police also have a strong influence on crowd behavior.
Most of these factors that affect group behavior can be applied to situations in a Navy environment, both ashore and aboard ship, particularly aboard larger ships such as carriers.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Explain how panic affects group behavior. Describe five situations that cause panic and explain two methods used to prevent panic. Identify the most important consideration in preventing panic.
Panic is a factor that must always be considered in crowd control. It results from terror, which inspires unreasoning and frantic efforts to seek safety. Panic is extremely contagious and spreads rapidly. The reactions of people become so irrational that they endanger themselves and others.
CAUSES OF PANIC
The following situations are causes of panic:
l Perceived threat. This is the knowledge or feeling that danger threatens. Usually the danger is felt to be so close at hand that the only course of action is to flee.
l Partial entrapment. The escape routes are limited. Often only one escape route exists.
l Partial or complete breakdown of the escape route. The already limited exits are further blocked or congested. Passage is limited and slow, or even halted.
l Front-to-rear communications failure. When people at the rear of the crowd continue to assume the escape route is open after it is blocked the panic situation is completed. The physical force of people in the rear trying to force their way to the blocked exit causes those in the front to be crushed, smothered, or trampled.
l Massed mob exposure to riot control agents. In a heavily massed configuration, individuals within the mob will be unable to readily escape riot control agents. Their sudden exposure to any significant quantity of a riot control agent may result in a panic situation that may seriously injure large numbers of people.
PREVENTION OF PANIC
Take every precaution to prevent panic. The most important consideration in preventing panic is to keep the people informed. If people can be convinced that no threat exists, or be kept fully informed as to the nature of the existing threat, it is less likely that panic will occur. Always maintain a means of communication with the people.
Another important factor in preventing panic is the establishment of avenues of escape. Ensure these escape routes are well publicized and are clearly defined. Control movement along the avenues of escape so that the flow is channeled in the desired direction. When dispersing a crowd, remember that actual physical blockage of escape routes is not necessary to create panic; the same effect will result if the crowd has cause to believe that escape routes are blocked.
COURSES OF MOB ACTION
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Describe some of the indiscriminate acts that might occur during a mob action, and list the factors that determine the degree of violence. Describe five incidents that a mob might take against a control force.
Regardless of the reason for violence, whether it is the result of spontaneous reactions or is deliberately incited, riotous actions can be extremely destructive. Such actions may consist of indiscriminate looting and burning, or open attacks on officials, buildings, and innocent passersby. Participants are limited in their actions only by their ingenuity, the training of their leaders, and the weapons, supplies, equipment, and materials available to them. The degree of violence will depend upon a number of factors, such as the type and number of people involved, location, cause of the disturbance, and weapons available. Certain types of violence can be anticipated. The control force must be familiar with and carefully trained in the proper actions to take when incidents such as the following occur:
Verbal abuse in the form of obscene remarks, taunts, ridicule, and jeers. The purpose of this tactic is to anger and demoralize civil disturbance control forces and cause them to take actions that later might be exploited as acts of brutality.
Groups of rioters venting their emotions upon individuals and unit formations. Personnel performing duty during a civil disorder might be beaten, injured, or killed. Vehicles might be overturned, set on fire, have their tires slashed, or be otherwise damaged. The same type of violence may be directed against personnel and equipment of fire departments and other public utilities.
Selective sniping or massed fire that may come from within the ranks of the rioters or from buildings or other adjacent cover. The weapons used will vary from homemade one-shot weapons to sophisticated automatic weapons.
Women children, and elderly people might be placed in the front ranks. This is done to play on the sympathy of the control forces and to discourage countermeasures. Where countermeasures are undertaken, agitators may have photographs taken to create further public animosity and embarrassment to the control forces.
l The crowd may construct barricades of vehicles, trees, furniture, fences, or any other material that may be in the vicinity. This is done to impede movement or in an attempt to prevent control forces from entering an area or buildings.
MANAGEMENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Describe five situations that apply to the management of civil disturbances. State the ultimate and interim objective in the management of civil disturbances, and list six elements that may make it necessary to seek an interim objective. Explain the importance of communications when dealing with a dissident element.
Civil disturbances have been thought of exclusively as riots. This concept has had a direct bearing on the planning, training, and operations of civilian and military control forces. However, the term civil disturbances, with its connotation of illegal activity, is sometimes used to include a broad range of confrontations that vary in intensity and purpose from a peaceful assembly in a public place to a violent and destructive attack on people and property. his broad range of activities requires that agencies develop responses based on the variable nature of the threat and provide for a high degree of flexibility and selectivity.
The past emphasis on the violent aspects has often resulted in control force responses that could, or did, aggravate rather than reduce the problem. Some demonstrations, such as picketing or marches, usually conducted as authorized by a permit, are legitimate forms of protest and generally should not be classed as disturbances. However, the possibility exists that a clique within the group of demonstrators, or factions not connected with the group, will take advantage of the opportunity to escalate the occasion to higher levels of disorder. Therefore, the management of a civil disturbance must be based on the peculiarities of each situation. These situations are as follows:
l Mass demonstrations -involving hundreds or thousands of people, many of whom may be nonviolent and within their rights to protest, but because of their number can overwhelm the capabilities of law enforcement agencies.
. Civil disobedience -often involving elderly women, young females, and mothers with small children, as well as men whose nonviolent nature places the control forces in an awkward position.
l Idealistic protests - involving fanatically dedicated young participants for whom normal deterrents such as the threat of arrest or use of force has limited or no effect.
l Dispersed riots - involving many small groups of dissidents, many of whom are acting irrationally out of sheer frustration and bitterness. These groups may operate independently or in concert over a wide urban area, dispersing when threatened by control force operations, later reassembling elsewhere.
l Terrorism -involving extremely violent, often radical tactics, such as sniping and bombing attacks, which make conventional police operations extremely hazardous, and probably ineffective.
The military's ultimate objective in the management of civil disturbances is the restoration of law and order. Law and order is a relative term that can generally be equated to a state of normalcy in the community. This objective should include pursuing a course of action that contributes to the long-term maintenance of orderliness. Avoid control force action that accomplishes immediate control only at the price of increased social hostilities and potentially greater future violence.
In many civil disturbances, fill control cannot be attained immediately. The control force must reduce the intensity of the disturbance to the lowest level that can be realistically attained given all the conditions and variables influencing that particular situation. This interim objective is essentially a compromise. On the one hand, the control force must avoid attempting to impose a degree of control beyond its actual capabilities or through provocative measures of force. On the other hand, the control force must take effective action to attain an acceptable degree of security and the continued functioning of the threatened community. Elements that may influence or necessitate the decision to seek an interim objective are the following:
. Magnitude of confrontation. The size or extent of many disturbances may make the enforcement of all laws impossible in affected areas.
Readiness of police. In the initial stages of a confrontation, the capability of control forces will be fairly limited pending the assembly of additional forces and the erection of field facilities.
Time of day. During certain hours of the day, large numbers of bystanders or hangers-on can be expected to be present at a confrontation, making their potential involvement an important factor.
Intensity of emotions. Where the emotional involvement of confrontation participants is at such a high point that any aggressive action could trigger greater violence.
Sympathies of public. Certain demonstrations or activities may attract the sympathy of a major segment of the community, thus making the actions of the control forces subject to very close scrutiny.
Strategy. In many confrontations, the demonstrator's goal is to produce an overly dramatic and violent police response, and the need to thwart that strategy is therefore a factor.
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATIONS
The primary factor that contributes to the reduction of intensities is the existence or establishment of communication between the control force leadership and the leadership of the dissident element. Such communication may be director through a third party.
The presence of communication enables the control force leadership to seek a reduction of dissident activity short of employing direct force. Communication also minimizes misconceptions of each party by the other, and reduces the possibility of improper or escalating responses by either party due to the misunderstandings of the intentions and capabilities of the other party.
PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE CONTROL
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify and explain the seven principles in successfully controlling a civil disturbance.
Past experience in civil disturbance control operations has identified seven principles of greatest value and broadest application in successfully controlling a civil disturbance. The principles have no order of priority of application. With one exception, the degree of importance of each varies according to the particular circumstances of a specific disorder. The exception is the principle of minimum force, which is applicable in full measure to each disturbance situation. Now let's look at the seven principles that apply to civil disturbance control.
The successful and efficient employment of military forces is vitally dependent on timely and accurate information. Too often, however, the analysis of potential disturbances has been based on organization intentions, and activities of the leaders of the demonstration. In this respect, responses have been based on the perceived intentions and activities of the more vocal and militant but much smaller element, without proper consideration of the reaction of the numerous, more peaceful participants or onlookers to such a response. Additionally, equal attention must be given to an appraisal of how the affected community will respond to likely demonstrators' actions and to the reactions of control forces. If the control force reacts in a manner that alienates the people in the community, the intensity of the disturbance could be increased.
In many civil disturbance situations, the demonstrators and the control force are, in effect, competing for the sympathy of the general public. The demonstrators seek to increase participation in the disturbance; the control force seeks to prevent the involvement of the general public. The establishment of a favorable professional image by the control force that would weigh public sympathy in their favor is a great advantage. Conversely, an unfavorable or unpopular image would increase the control force's problems and contribute to the aims of the dissidents. A favorable control force image is established by skillful performance of duty, discipline, and courtesy.
Many civil disturbances involve control forces from a variety of municipal, county, state, and federal law enforcement and military organizations. The success and efficiency of these diverse forces are dependent upon their working in harmony and mutual support towards common objectives.
The employment of diverse control forces from different governmental jurisdictions poses distinct supervisory problems. Unlike conventional military operations under unified command, civil disturbance operations may have no single commander with the requisite authority to direct all control forces. Where unity of command cannot be achieved, cooperation should be sought through such means as assigning operational centers, integrating communications systems, and delineating organizational responsibilities.
Inherent in civil disturbances is the possibility that certain actions by the control force may not be accepted by the general public. This may cause uninvolved bystanders to support the demonstrators, thereby increasing the intensity of the demonstration. Recognizing these possibilities, control forces must avoid actions that tend to produce greater harm than benefit. The actions chosen to reduce the intensity of the situation require that consequences, both immediate and long-range, be considered to ensure that unnecessary actions offensive to the community are avoided.
The objective of civil disturbance control is the restoration of law and order, not the imposition of punishment or the suppression of peaceful dissent. The conduct of the control forces must be emotionally objective and politically neutral, despite whatever personal feelings or political beliefs they hold as individuals. This outward display of objectivityneutrality is particularly important where the demonstrator's actions are expressly designed to provoke the type of personal, unlawful control force reaction that would create greater support for the demonstrators.
The commitment of military forces to support civilian law enforcement agencies must be considered as a drastic last resort. Your involvement must be limited to that degree justified by necessity. Unlike combat operations where the use of overwhelming fire-power is desirable, civil disturbance control operations must be accomplished with minimum injury to persons or damage to property. The use of force must be restricted to the minimum degree consistent with mission accomplishment. The use of excessive or unnecessary force may subject the responsible person to civil and/or criminal liability and may serve to increase public sympathy for the demonstrators.
APPLICATION OF FORCE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: State the paramount principle when using force during a civil disturbance. List three items that should be included when control force personnel are briefed Explain when nondeadly and deadly force may be used, and when deadly force is authorized. State eight policies regarding the use of deadly force.
The guidelines of the application of force, which follow, are designed specifically for operations during civil disturbances.
Control force personnel must at all times use only the minimum force required to accomplish the mission. This principle should control both the selection of appropriate operational techniques and tactics and the choice of options for arming control force personnel. Therefore, the use of deadly force or any other type of physical force likely to cause death or serious bodily harm is authorized only under extreme circumstances where certain specific criteria are met. Currently, shotguns are the basic weapon for control force members in a civil disturbance area, but supervisors must ensure that only the weapons specified by the commanding officer are used.
BRIEFING OF PERSONNEL
All personnel, prior to participation in civil disturbance operations, should be briefed as to the specific mission of the unit; the rules governing the application of force as they apply to the specific situation; and the local situation, specifically addressing types of abuse that military personnel may be expected to receive and the proper response to these types of abuses.
USE OF NONDEADLY AND DEADLY FORCE
Control force squad leaders are authorized to use nondeadl y force to control a disturbance, to prevent crimes, and to apprehend or detain persons who have committed crimes. The degree of force used must be no greater than that reasonably necessary under the circumstances. The use of deadly force, however, in effect involves the power of summary execution and can therefore be justified only by extreme necessity. Accordingly, its use is not authorized for the purpose of preventing activities that do not pose a significant risk of death or serious bodily harm, such as curfew violations or looting. If a mission cannot be accomplished without the use of deadly force and deadly force is not permitted, accomplishment of the mission must be delayed until sufficient nondeadly force can be brought to bear.
AUTHORIZATION FOR DEADLY FORCE
The use of deadly force is authorized only when all three of the following circumstances are present:
1. Lesser means have been exhausted or are unavailable.
2. The use of deadly force will not significantly increase the risk of death or serious bodily harm to innocent persons.
3. Deadly force is justified under one or more of the following circumstances:
a. Self-defense and defense of others. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to protect law enforcement or security personnel who reasonably believe themselves or others to be in imminent danger of death or serious bodily harm.
b. Assets involving national security. When deadly force reasonably appears necessary to prevent the actual theft or sabotage of assets vital to national security. DOD assets should be specifically designated as vital to national security only when their loss, damage or compromise would seriously jeopardize the national defense mission. Examples include nuclear weapons; nuclear command, control, and communications facilities; and designated restricted areas containing strategic operational assets, sensitive codes, or special access programs.
c. Assets not involving national security but inherently dangerous to others. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the actual theft or sabotage of resources, such as operable weapons or ammunition that when in the hands of an unauthorized individual, present a substantial potential danger of death or serious bodily harm. Examples include high-risk portable and lethal missiles, rockets, arms, ammunition, explosives, chemical agents, and special nuclear material.
d. Serious offenses against persons. When deadly force reasonably appears necessary to prevent the commission of a serious offense involving violence and threatening death or serious bodily harm. Examples are murder, armed robbery, and aggravated assault.
e. Arrest or apprehension.-When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to arrest, apprehend, or prevent the escape of a person who has committed an offense of the nature specified in paragraph b, c, and d above.
f. Escapes. - When deadly force has been specifically authorized by the Heads of the DOD components and reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the escape of a prisoner, provided law enforcement or security personnel have probable cause to believe that the escaping prisoner poses a threat of serious bodily harm either tosecurity personnel or others.
THE RIGHT OF SELF DEFENSE
Each person, under the law, has the right to use form that may be reasonably necessary to defend one's self against violent and dangerous personal attack. The limitations described in the previous paragraphs are not intended to infringe this right. However, a control force member is subject to a chain of command. And as such, the member must act in accord with orders issued and as a member of a unit. Therefore, unless the attack is directed at the member personally and is a threat to life, the control force member's response must be governed by the immediate supervisor. . .
In each situation where Federal forces are committed, the installation commanding officers must determine which facilities within the area of operation constitute "vital facilities." Parameters must be established that justify the use of deadl y force in order to be protected. MAs assigned to security missions must know if a particular facility or activity is so vital to the health and safety of the public that the use of deadly force would be justified in the protection of the facility or activity.
POLICIES REGARDING THE USE OF DEADLY FORCE
In addition, the following policies regarding the use of deadly force should be observed:
l Iinstallation commanding officers may, at their discretion, delegate the authority to authorize the use of deadly force provided that the person to whom such delegation is made understands the constraints upon the use of deadly force.
l Even when its use is authorized, deadly force must be employed only with great selectivity and precision against the particular threat that justifies its use. For example, the receipt of sniper fire, however deadly, from an unknown location can never justify returning the fire against any or all persons who may be visible on the street or in nearby buildings. Such an indiscriminate response is far too likely to result in casualties among innocent bystanders or fellow control force personnel. The appropriate response is to take cover and attempt to locate the source of the fire, so that the threat can be neutralized.
l When possible, the use of deadly force should be preceded by a clear warning to the individual or group that the use of such force is contemplated or imminent.
l Warning shots are not to be employed. Such firing constitutes a hazard to innocent persons and can create the mistaken impression on the part of citizens or fellow control force personnel that sniping is widespread.
l Control force personnel should never carry unloaded firearms. But remember, command control arrangements should be specifically designed to facilitate careful control of deadly weapons. Control force leaders must be clearly instructed about their personal obligation to withhold permission for use of deadly force until circumstances indicate a high probability that deadly force will be imminently necessary.
l Control force members will, at all times, exercise positive control over the use of weapons. Individual MAs will be instructed not to fire a weapon except when authorized by a control team leader. However, if you are not under the direct control of a team leader, use deadly force only when justified.
l When a weapon is fired it will be fired with the intent to render the person incapable of continuing the activity that caused the control force member to shoot.
l The safety of innocent bystanders should always be taken into account before shots are fired.
OPERATIONAL TASKS AND TECHNIQUES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: State the purpose of an operational task evaluation. Explain the importance of carefullyl choosing a force option. State the reason for isolation of an area and for securing likely targets.
In any civil disturbance control operation, certain tasks must be accomplished to reach the ultimate objective of restoring and maintaining law and order. To do this, action must be taken to gain control of the situation. Control forces must perform certain tasks to develop a physical and psychological environment.
OPERATIONAL TASK EVALUATION
It is equally important that the operational tasks be selected only after a careful evaluation of the situation. This evaluation must consider the uniqueness of the situation. In this respect, the installation commanding officer selects those tasks that are most likely to reduce the intensity of the confrontation by effectively managing the given situation. Therefore, not all tasks will apply in all situations. Installation commanding officers and control team leaders identify those tasks that must be performed and then develop plans and procedures for their accomplishment. The importance of having a high degree of flexibility and selectivity in the response cannot be overemphasized.
OPTIONS WHEN USING FORCE
The commitment of Federal military forces must be viewed as a drastic measure. Their role, therefore, should never be greater than is absolutely necessary under the prevailing circumstances. This does not mean, however, that the size of the control force employed should be minimized. On the contrary, the degree of force required to control a disturbance is frequently opposite to the proportional number of available personnel. The presence of large numbers may prevent the development of situations in which the use of deadly force is necessary. A large reserve of personnel should be maintained during this type of operation. The knowledge that a large reserve force is available builds morale among military and law enforcement personnel and contributes toward preventing overreaction to provocative acts by disorderly persons.
In selecting an operational approach to a civil disturbance situation, the commanding officer and staff must observe the "minimum force" principle. For example, crowd control formations or riot control agents should not be used if saturation of the area with manpower would suffice.
Avoid appearing as an alien, invading force. Present the image of a restrained and well-disciplined force whose sole purpose is to assist in restoration of law and order with a minimum loss of life and property. Show respect to those citizens whose involvement may be purely accidental. Further, while control force personnel should be visible, tactics or force concentrations that might tend to excite rather than to calm should be avoided where possible.
ISOLATE THE AREA
Isolating the area encompasses the restriction and sealing off of the disturbed area. The objectives of isolation are to prevent the disorder from spreading to unaffected areas, to prevent the escape of individuals determined to expand the disturbance, to expedite the departure of the uninvolved, and to exclude unauthorized personnel from entering the affected area. Therefore, to stop the disorder from expanding in size and intensity, it is critical that no additional demonstrators or curious onlookers be allowed into the disturbed area.
The initial commitment of control force personnel may be required to clear a building or an area to isolate the individuals creating the disturbance from those not yet motivated or actively involved. The primary emphasis should be on identifying the area to be cleared and who has to be isolated.
SECURE LIKELY TARGETS
Certain buildings, utilities, and services are critical to the economic and physical well-being of a community and require security to prevent disruption of essential functions. In addition, certain facilities and buildings have become symbolic targets to radical or extremist elements and must be identified and afforded protection within the priorities established.
The techniques for securing likely targets consist essentially of providing physical security. Military forces are ideally organized and equipped to perform this task Security of Government buildings and public utility facilities is a normal mission for military forces in most types of civil disturbances. This releases civil police to operate within the disturbed area in their law enforcement capacity.
CONTROL OF CROWDS OR MOBS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify seven variables of crowds or mobs. Describe four crowd control options. Explain the difference between crowds and mobs and describe four ways in which a crowd becomes a mob.
Civil disturbance operations, especially those conducted over extended periods, require control forces to confront a variety of crowds and mobs. Crowds and mobs differ in many ways, and these differences are called variables.
VARIABLES OF CROWDS OR MOBS
Consideration of the following variables will indicate the general nature of the mob or crowd, and the most appropriate reamer of controlling them:
. The current intensity level of the civil disturbance
. Public opinion
l Current policies
. Crowd and mob mood, intent, composition, and activity
. Capabilities and readiness of control forces
l Immediate and long range benefits of control
force action l Weather, terrain, and time of day
CROWD CONTROL OPTIONS
In general terms, four crowd-control options are available. They are monitoring, dispersing, containing, and blocking. A prime consideration in selecting an option will be the capability of control forces to accomplish the desired option.
Monitoring consists of watching the crowd's progress and development by control force teams. Monitoring enables the commander to evaluate the crowd's activity and intent in relation to the larger civil disturbance and possibly to influence the crowd through passive means. This option is appropriate for large, nonviolent demonstrations where more decisive action is not feasible, because of crowd size, and acts as an interim measure pending the arrival of additional control forces. Techniques for accomplishing this option include passive observation of the crowd, and the communication of interest and intent to leaders.
Dispersing is an action taken to fragment a crowd. It is especially applicable to large crowd situations in a congested urban environment. Its selection should include the consideration that dispersion may increase and spread lawlessness rather than reduce it. Techniques for accomplishing this option would include the show of force, use of riot control formations, and use of riot control agents.
Containing means restraint of a large number of individuals within the area they are presently occupying, thereby stopping any further aggressive activity. This option would be appropriate in a college campus situation to prevent rioters from spreading to surrounding communities and to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the campus. Containing would also be appropriate where the systematic arrest of crowd members is contemplated. Riot control formations and use of barricades comprise the primary techniques for this option.
Blocking consists of actually stopping a crowd's advance toward the potential or actual target. Riot control formations and barricades are the most appropriate tools.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN CROWDS AND MOBS
A crowd is a group or a number of separate groups that may be orderly or disorderly but that has not lost its collective sense of fear. A mob, on the other hand, is distinguished by the fact that, under the stimulus of intense excitement, its members have actually lost the sense of fear of the law.
Mobs develop from crowds, but inmost cases mobs could be prevented by the proper application of crowd tactics. A crowd lacks organization and unit of purpose; but if bent on mischief, a crowd requires only a leader to become a mob. If the crowd is compelled to move on and break up, however, there is usually little danger.
A crowd assembled for an unlawful purpose hesitates to commit itself to a course of unrestrained violence. But some of its members may perform violent acts when they think they have little chance of being apprehended and punished.
CONVERSION FROM CROWD TO MOB
The crowd, although noisy and threatening, should be kept well in hand. If left to its own devices, the crowd is likely to commit assaults and other actions that may excite it to a mob pitch. A crowd might be converted into a mob by the following:
l Apparent weakening of the forces holding a crowd in check, even though only a momentary weakening
l A single piece of daring violence successfully carried through
l A short lecture by a fiery leader
l The appearance on the street of a conspicuous and hated figure
Civil and military officials must ensure that this transformation does not take place. The formation of a mob usually means bloodshed before order is restored.
CROWD CONTROL TECHNIQUES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain and discuss the various techniques for crowd control.
There are numerous techniques designed to provide the commander with flexibility of action in accomplishing crowd control. The commander must select a combination of techniques that will produce the desired results within the framework of the selected crowd control option. The most common techniques are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Observation consists of the deployment of individuals or teams to the outermost region of a crowd for the purpose of monitoring the crowd's activity. It includes gathering information on crowd size, location, and mood, and reporting on the developing situation.
COMMUNICATION OF INTEREST AND INTENT
In certain situations, effective communication with crowd leaders and participants may enable the force to control the situation without resorting to more severe actions. When planned and organized demonstrations, marches, or rallies within the disturbed area are announced, the control force commander, in coordination with local authorities, should meet with the activity organizers to communicate the interest of the control forces.
The installation commanding officer and local authorities should communicate to the activity organizers their intent to cope with violence, unlawful actions, and violations of restrictions imposed on the activity. It is intended that, by this communication between activity organizers and control force personnel, the demonstration, rally, or parade will occur without incident through the mutual cooperation of all concerned. The intentions of control forces will not be effective if delivered as an ultimatum. A limited, begrudging dialogue with activity organizers reduces the opportunity for authorities to learn the plans of the demonstrators. It must be remembered that if this communication is not effective, the activity organizers might well hold the demonstration in defiance of local authorities.
Where communications have been established with the dissident leadership and the intent and nature of the crowd activity is known in advance, pressure may be brought to bear on the leaders. This will channel the crowd into an area that will minimize the disruption that the crowd might have on the community, and that will facilitate the operations of the control force.
Consideration may be given to efforts to divert the leadership of the crowd itself from its stated or apparent objective. This effort is greatly facilitated if communications exist with the leadership of the crowd. This technique may be either direct, denying access to an area, or indirect, promoting an alternate site or activity of greater interest to the crowd. The diversion should support the objectives of the control force either by reducing the intensity of the crowd situation or by motivating the crowd to seek an area more easily controlled by the control force.
The control force must seek to obtain the cooperation of the dissident leadership, which will decrease the potential for disruption. Also, when crowd leadership seeks permission and cooperation from the local government, officials should maximize this opportunity. This may be accomplished by talking the leadership into a cooperative planning effort designed to facilitate the protestor's opportunity to peacefully demonstrate. This will also establish guidelines that will minimize the impact of the demonstration on the community.
The installation commanding officer's representative at the scene, in the Name of the President of the United States, will call upon members of the group to disperse to their homes immediately. This is known as the Presidential proclamation. Another proclamation will be issued by the military commander to advise the people residing within the community of the rules and orders they are to obey and the reasons for such rules. This proclamation by the military is not to be confused with the Presidential proclamation. A proclamation establishes the illegal nature of the crowd's actions, and is an excellent medium to make known to a crowd the intentions of the control force.
SHOW OF FORCE
A show of force may be effective in various situations in civil disturbance control operations. Marching a well-equipped and highly disciplined control force into view of an assembled crowd maybe all that is needed to persuade dissidents to disperse and retire peaceably from the scene. In other situations, however, a show of force may have a counterproductive effect. It may cause more persons to be attracted to the "show" and provoke a nonviolent crowd into a violent confrontation. When personnel are scattered throughout the disturbance area in small groups, a show of force may take the form of motor marches throughout the area saturation patrolling, and the manning of static posts.
APPREHENSION OF CROWD MEMBERS
The apprehension of an individual can only be justified if that person is in violation of the law. Situations may arise in a crowd control mission where large numbers of persons are participating in unlawful activities. The dispersal of such groups might result in greater violence or militant acts. Factors may exist that preclude the use of water or riot control agents, thus necessitating the containment of the crowd in a given area or the apprehension and removal of those crowd members committing unlawful acts. Where possible, military forces should allow civil police officers to perform the actual apprehension, processing, and detention of civilian law violators. However, conditions of necessity may require these functions to be performed by military personnel.
USE OF BARRIERS
On a pier or wharf, barriers can be effectively used to channel intruders and prevent vehicles from being driven near the ship.
For a ship, lining off or lifting the brow will help in reducing access to the ship. Additionally, extra camels can be requested to increase the distance between the ship (especially those with a low freeboard) and the shore structure.
Secure and lock as many weather deck accesses as possible to limit entry by boarders and as a prevention measure from weapons fire and thrown incendiary devices.
EMPLOYMENT OF WATER
Water from a firehose may be effective in moving small groups on a narrow front, such as a street or in defending a barricade or roadblock Personnel applying water should be protected by the control force, and in some instances, by shields.
A water-dispersing system specifically designed for use in civil disturbance operations is not included in the Navy supply inventory, but may be improvised from existing items of equipment. Water may be employed in a flat trajectory (solid-stream) or as a high trajectory weapon (employing water as rainfall). The latter is highly effective during cold weather.
The use of a large water tank (750-1,000 gallons) and a mounted "water cannon" will enable the force to employ water as they advance. By having at least two such trucks, one can be held in reserve.
Aboard ship, water hoses can be laid out in advance. The fire stations to be used will usually be indicated by their location, including the availability of cover for hose teams. Past actual experience has shown that foam
(AFFF) has had a disorienting effect on crowds, and has increased the effectiveness of firefighting from the ship when objects on or to the pier, including vehicles and mooring lines, were set afire by the crowds.
In the use of water, as with other measures of force, certain restraints must be applied. Avoid using water on innocent bystanders. Provide avenues of escape and use the more severe, flat trajectory application only when necessary.
RIOT CONTROL AGENTS
The use of riot control agents is an effective method of dispersing crowds. Remember, however, that effects of not control agents are only temporary and will not prevent the reformation of a crowd in either the same or a different location. Riot control agents have many advantages over other techniques in that they have an immediate effect on large groups of people without causing any permanent harm. Riot control agents, when properly used by the control force, will disperse large crowds without actual contact with rioters. An understanding of riot control agents, their capabilities and limitations, is mandatory for safe and efficient use. The authority to order the use of riot control agents rests with the installation commander.
Filming or photographing persons engaged in lawful dissent (picketing, peaceful protest, etc.) is not warranted and should be avoided. However, filming persons engaged in unlawful conduct is recommend as a future record for court proceedings to show that crimes were being committed and/or the identity of the persons committing those crimes. Additionally, filming of events can quickly resolve complaints of excessive force by force personnel.
MILITARY WORKING DOGS
The proper use of military working dogs as part of the control forces can be a great deterrent. In especially unruly crowds, extra care must be given to protection of the dogs from the crowd itself, thrown objects, and crowd control agents.
MOB CONTROL TECHNIQUES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Explain and discuss the various techniques for mob control.
The methods employed against mobs differ from those required against crowds. Less dispersion of forces is allowed; more force must be used (but kept well under control); and sterner measures must be adopted. The following mob control techniques are recommended:
Messages to the mob. A mob should not be lectured, bullied, or bluffed. And above all, it should not be threatened or dared.
Direction of attack. A mob usually should be attacked on one flank, depending upon the direction the mob should be moved. When those in front would like to retreat but because of the pressure from behind are unable to do so, the mob should be attacked from the rear.
Use of gunfire. The number of firearms used should be no greater than is absolutely necessary. If there is firing from the rear of the mob, a few marksmen should be placed where they can return the fire at that source only. A few marksmen should also be detailed to return fire on windows or roofs from which firing or sniping is occurring. Care should always be taken to avoid firing into a group of innocent persons from which some rioter has fired.
Blank cartridges. Blank cartridges should never be used when combating a mob bent on violence, in nor should a volley be fired over their heads. Such action may be regarded as an admission of weakness or as an attempt to bluff, and may do much more harm than good.
l Use of tear gas. Tear gas grenades, employed by military forces equipped with gas masks, are an effective method of dispersing a mob. Tear gas grenades should be projected to the windward side of the rioters.
l Hand-to-hand fighting. Hand-to-hand fighting should be avoided. Here, the mob has the advantage because of its superior number. The mob should be kept at such distance that personnel can employ their weapons and use their training and discipline to the best advantage.
l When things are thrown. When confronted by a control force, an angry mob often begins to look for things to throw at the control force. When control force personnel are jumping, running, and dodging flying objects, the appearance of disorganization exists, and a lack of discipline could possibly encourage the mob to be more aggressive. When a mob is throwing objects, the control force should be equipped with riot shields to enable them to hold their ground in a professional manner.
l Use of riot shields. Military and Federal law enforcement personnel on duty at the various Cuban Refugee Camps in 1980 suffered many casualties. Most of the injuries were caused by thrown objects. It was discovered that helmets and face shields and flak jackets alone do not offer sufficient protection. Casualties were reduced and better control was realized when riot shields were introduced and properly used by the various agencies. Riot shields not only provide protection for the officers, but are tools for pushing back crowds.
CROWD AND MOB CONTROL FORMATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Describe the three types of formations used in crowd and mob control. Explain why formation interval is important.
Crowd control formations can be used effectively many disturbance situations. When properly employed and effectively executed, they represent one of the more practical methods of controlling and dispensing the massed crowd. Crowd control formations are particularly effective against large crowds because they provide to the control force the capability of splitting the crowd or mob into manageable segments.
The limitations of formations must be realized. Formations are not the answer to all disturbance situations. Crowd control forces should not be subjected to unnecessary sniper fire and violent tactics of agitators simply to impress the people with a show of force. When small, dispersed mobs are rampant in an area of operations, formations will be of little value. Further, when a large mob has been split up, the problem is not necessarily solved. Do not assume that rioters have given in and returned to peaceful activities. The small elements may break away from the large mob and engage in small dispensed mob tactics such as sniping, looting, and burning.
TYPES OF FORMATIONS
Lessons learned from civil disturbances in the United States indicate that the most frequently used formations are the wedge, the line, and the echelon. See figure 9-1. A rioting mob usually is attacked on the flank. In general, rioters should be driven to an area where they can do the least damage. Force MUST be kept to a minimum, as violence by the military may cause a mob to become more ferocious.
Figure 9-1.-The wedge, line, and echelon formations.
As an offensive formation, the wedge is used to penetrate and split crowds. A wedge of about 35 persons is suitable for clearing an ordinary city street. Normally, about 18 persons should be deployed in the wedge itself, with 3 people supporting each flank. The remaining people form columns of two's in the center of each wedge as support. The flanks of the wedges may be reinforced as necessary.
Line (right or left)
The line formation is most often used because of its offensive and defensive purposes. The position of the squad leader in the line determines right or left line formation. As an offensive formation, the line is used to push or drive crowds straight back or across an open area or up a city street. As a defensive formation, the line might be used to hold a riotous group or to deny access to restricted streets or areas.
Echelon (right or left)
The echelon is an offensive formation used to redirect groups in either open or built-up areas, and to move crowds away from buildings, fences, or walls. The squad leader is positioned at the rear of the echelon, and the direction of crowd movement from the squad leader's point of view determines right or left echelon.
Experience has shown that formations, to be effective, must be tailored to meet the situation. The members of a formation are usually separated by a one pace (30-inch) interval, but this spacing might not be sufficient in some situations and may need to be expanded or reduced. Some police forces have discovered that a greater interval makes members less susceptible to injury from thrown objects and a tighter interval reduces infiltration possibilities. The control force commander should adjust the formations to fit the needs of the particular situation.
Figure 9-2 illustrates various ways that crowds and mobs can be dispersed in different situations. For example, in part A of figure 9-2, the attacking force is using an echelon right formation to move a crowd away from a public building. In parts B, C, D, and E of figure 9-2, other formations in various conflgurations are shown.
Complete information and instruction of the use of formations, oral and visual commands, and organization of crowd control formations is contained in the U.S. Army Field Manual 19-15, Civil Disturbances.
FORMATION WEAPONS AND CARRY POSITIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify and describe the weapons used in control formations. Explain how to properly use riot control agents. Demonstrate three carry positions for weapons in control formations.
Weapons used in formations include the riot baton and the riot shotgun. Other weapons that may be used in a sophisticated situation are sniper rifles, hand guns, and riot control agent dispersers. In this section, we will also look at how the weapons should be held while in formation. But first, let's look at the weapons themselves.
THE RIOT BATON
The riot (36-inch) baton is most effective in a crowd control operation and is the primary weapon for such operations. The baton is an offensive weapon with reduced lethality and, unlike the shotgun, the loss of a baton to the crowd does not create a serious threat. The riot baton may also be used in combination with the shotgun by having the control element confronting the crowd armed with riot batons and the support element armed with shotguns. If the riot baton is not available, nightsticks or patrol batons (22- to 26-inch) may be substituted, but with reduced effectiveness.
THE RIOT SHOTGUN
The riot shotgun is an extremely versatile weapon and is the primary individual weapon. The shotgun's appearance and capability produce a strong psychological effect on rioters, and it is particularly suited to certain applications in civil disturbance operations. When used with No. 00 buckshot, it is effective at limited range; however, use of No. 00 buckshot should be limited to specific missions.
RIOT CONTROL AGENTS
Riot control agents have a high safety factor and will not seriously endanger health or cause death when
Figure 9-2.-Mob dispersal techniques
used properly. Riot control agents should not be used in hospital areas or other areas when undesirable effects may result from their use. Only designated and trained personnel should use riot control agent dispersers.
POSITIONS FOR WEAPONS
The civil disturbance control force should hold their weapons as prescribed by the commander. The methods include safe port position, safe guard position, and on guard position.
The "safe port" position is shown in figure 9-3. This position is extremely useful in making a show of force. In this elevated position, weapons can be seen by the participants in the middle or rear of a group. The sight of these weapons can create an impression of strength and superiority. However, control force members should not be required to maintain the position for extended periods of time, as it is very tiring.
The "safe guard" position (fig. 9-4) is one of semi-readiness. It is less tiring than the "on guard" position and should be used to rest the control force when circumstances permit. For example, as the control force advances, they should maintain the "safe guard" position until just before contact is made or resistance is expectected and then be ordered to the "on guard' position. The "safe guard" position can also be used when pursuing a crowd withdrawing without resistance.
Figure 9-3.-Safe port position.
Figure 9-4.-Safe guard position.
The "on guard" position (fig. 9-5) is one of complete readiness and should be used whenever the control force is in contact with a group that is showing resistance or a hesitance to withdraw. It is a tiring position to maintain for extended periods of time. The force should be rested at every opportunity by using less tiring positions.
MENTAL PREPARATION FOR CIVIL DISTURBANCE OPERATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Explain the importance of mental preparation for civil disturbance operations. Describe how control force members should react to stress. Explain how psychological influences impact on control force members themselves.
A special need exists to prepare individuals for the mental and physical stress of civil disturbance control operations. Training in this subject area should be
Figure 9-5.-On guard position.
oriented both toward understanding crowd and mob behavior and toward preparing units to control their own actions and emotions. Typical causes of civil disorders should be studied to give individuals a better understanding of why they maybe called upon to control civil disorders. Group behavior should be sufficiently discussed to show individuals what to expect. Further, personnel must be made aware of the influence of psychological factors upon their own behavior.
INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE TO STRESS
Masters-at-Arms engaged in civil disturbance operations will be subjected to noise and confusion created by large numbers of people facing them. Individual MAs may be shouted at, insulted, and called abusive names. You must learn to ignore these taunts and not allow personal feelings to interfere with the execution of your mission. In addition, you can expect objects to be thrown at you; however, objects must never be thrown back. You must subdue your emotions and carry out orders with determination and with "controlled aggression" whether in formation, patrolling, or posted as sentries.
MAs must be emotionally prepared for unusual actions, such as members of the crowd screaming and rushing toward them, or persons tearing off their own clothes or deliberately injuring or maiming themselves. You should understand that the well-disciplined execution of orders is the most effective force applied against rioters. Personnel must be indoctrinated in all aspects of self-control so that they are mentally prepared for participation in civil disturbance operations.
An effective way to familiarize MAs with the stress
of confronting a mob is to conduct an exercise
employing part of the unit as violent demonstrators, with
the remainder acting as the control force. Have the "mob" harass those acting as the control force in a
manner as realistic as possible, consistent with safety.
Just as the crowd may be swept into violence by the psychological influences of anonymity, impersonality, suggestion and imitation, emotional contagion, and release from repressed emotions, the control forces reaction may be inappropriate because of the effect of such factors on them. Both the leader and the control force members must be made aware of these factors so that they can cope with them in the civil disturbance environment.
The cumulative effect of these psychological factors may be an excessive response by control force personnel, who are often thrust into situations with little time to brief them about the situation. They may be confronted by individuals who express personal hostility in a manner that they are not prepared to handle unless they have been properly conditioned. It is extremely important that control force personnel be fully oriented, conditioned, and sensitized so that they can better cope with these problems in a civil disorder environment.
The fatigue factor must also be taken into consideration in determining the ability of control force personnel to deal with provocation and temptation, abusive language, taunts, invitations to seduction, offers of food and drink, physical missiles, tracts, and leaflets. Studies of recent disorders reveal that control forces tend to suffer strain, anxiety, and fatigue when they are kept on duty for extended periods of time. Rumors of violent acts committed against fellow members of the force also increase tension. After a while, they may begin to believe that they are in a war, and that all dissidents are their enemies. Sniping incidents tend to confirm their suspicions and provide assumed justification for revenge by excessive use of force or retaliation with massive firepower.
In situations where the control forces become emotionally involved, the force commander may lose control over the actions of their personnel. The control forces must be made fully aware of the reasons for which they have been committed. If they are not fully aware and prepared for the situation, they may act improperly or fail to act on command. Official reports stress the importance of training to develop self-discipline and teamwork.
In this chapter, we pointed out the agency responsible for civil disturbances and described categories of intervention. Collective behavior factors and how they impact on various groups was also considered. Next, we looked at the psychological influences on crowds, the factors that affect crowd behavior, and how crowds are affected by panic. Then we looked at some incidents that might occur in a mob action and those incidents that a mob might take against a control force. Management of civil disturbances and principles of control were also considered. The application of force was examined, and the principles relating to nondeadly and deadly force were outlined. Operational techniques for choosing force options along with various crowd control options were discussed. Next, we considered the various techniques for crowd and mob control. Three types of formations used in crowd control were described, followed by a discussion of formation weapons and carry positions. Finally, mental preparation for civil disturbance operations, individual response to stress, and the psychological influences on a control force were covered.
References: Appendix IV - References
Civil Disturbances, Department of the Army Field Manual, FM 19-15, Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1985.
Military Support of Civil Defense, Department of Defense Directive 3025.10, Washington, DC, 1981.
Use of Deadly Force and the Carrying of Firearms by Personnel of the Department of the Navy in Conjunction with Law Enforcement, Security Duties, and Personal Protection, SECNAVINST 5500.29B, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC, 1992.